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African-American History in Las Vegas BibliographyIch habe ein link der die Geschichte als Zeitlinie auffuehrt. Aber ob das eine grosse HIlfe ist, weiss ich auch nicht. Da waere Wiki glaube ich trotzdem einfacher. On November 14, , at the Excalibur Hotel, Chairman of Circus Circus, William Bennett announced plans for construction of a new pyramid-shaped resort in. Entdecken Sie die besten Attraktionen & Sightseeing-Touren in Las Vegas. Vergleichen Sie Las Vegas Natural History Museum. #2. Las Vegas Natural.
History Of Las Vegas Navigation menu VideoFrom Desert to Party Central: The Birth of Las Vegas
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New casinos and showgirl venues opened up along Fremont Street, the only paved road in the city, in hopes of attracting workers. Although World War II stunted growth in Las Vegas — nearby Nellis Air Force Base served as training grounds — the first hotel, El Rancho Vegas, opened up on Highway 91 in In the late s, the success of El Rancho Vegas inspired others to open up hotels along Highway 91, which would later evolve into the Strip.
East Coast mobster Bugsy Siegel — backed by fellow mob boss Meyer Lansky — was amongst these hotel builders, opening the Hollywood-inspired Flamingo Hotel in Although Siegel was murdered in , fellow mobsters helped to carry out his vision for Las Vegas; during the s and s, the Riviera, the New Frontier, the Sands, and the Sahara opened, mostly funded by racketeering and drug trafficking money.
But soon enough, many mobsters received investments from reputable groups such as Wall Street banks and the Mormon Church. In , billionaire and businessman Howard Hughes was staying at the Desert Inn.
He decided he did not want to leave and opted to purchase the hotel instead. He bought over a dozen more hotels, slowly pushing out mobster-owned hotels that dominated the city.
In that same year, construction was started on the Boulder Canyon project, now known as Hoover Dam. Along with bringing construction workers and their families to the area, a growing tourism industry was created as visitors came to witness the building of this engineering marvel.
This helped the area avoid the economic devastation of the great depression. These changes greatly impacted downtown's Fremont Street named after John C.
Fremont, who led a westward overland expedition and camped at Las Vegas Springs in Fremont Street evolved from a dusty whistle stop into a haven for fun-seekers.
In , a gunnery school for the Army Air Corps was established. Over the next two decades the strip was transformed yet again: Old casinos were dynamited to make room for massive complexes taking their aesthetic cues from ancient Rome and Egypt, Paris, Venice, New York and other glamorous escapes.
In , even as residents faced recession, rising unemployment and a housing price collapse, the city still received nearly 40 million visitors.
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Nevada is the seventh largest of the 50 states, but is one of the most sparsely populated. Carson City, in the western part of the state, is the capital.
His expedition numbered 60 men. As they quickly ran out of supplies in this inhospitable climate, they decided to replenish them in a settlement in front of the Nevada desert.
At the same time, but on the other side of the desert, a group of explorers led by Rafael Rivera were camping.
He was also the first European to enter the area. Rivera had the main group camp at the beginning of the desert and set out with several men to explore.
Within two weeks, they discovered a valley, with lush vegetation and mainly a source of drinking water. John C. The group camped in Las Vegas Springs and built a very well-hidden fortress there.
The war with Mexico eventually took place, and the area subsequently joined America. Travellers, merchants and hunters then used the war fortress.
In , members of the Mormon Church decided to build a fort in present-day Las Vegas, due to its convenient location. It was halfway between Los Angeles and Salt Lake City.
However, the fortress was abandoned after several years. Its remains can still be seen at the intersection between Las Vegas Boulevard and Washington Avenue in Las Vegas.
Over the next few years, however, Americans still avoided the area, except for travellers and traders.
In , Nevada was recognized as the 36th state of the United States. Mineral sediments, including precious metals, were discovered here in the second half of the 19th century, leading to the beginnings of industry in this part of the United States.
Farmers are starting to move to the area, and agriculture has become the dominant sector for the next 20 years.
At the end of the century, the main railroad link between Southern California and Salt Lake City was completed.
Thanks to the large water supply, it becomes a great place to refuel, and tourists can relax here on a long journey. At this time, Las Vegas began to grow, and the settlement began to resemble a smaller city.
So far, it has been used mainly by travellers and traders, who stopped here for a few days, rested and replenished supplies for the next trip.
So we find ourselves at the beginning of the 20th century when Las Vegas is still a settlement that benefits from its very advantageous position on the railway line.
But the settlement is starting to grow very fast as more and more people are buying land there. On May 15, , Las Vegas became a city.
This is also because the water was brought here from wells. The city, therefore, had a supply of fresh drinking water, which was already able to store.
And it is thanks to the water that the city has become even more important. At this time, the entire southern United States is flourishing.
In the summer of , more specifically, on July 1, a new Clark County district was established in Nevada.
The area was named after William Clark, who brought the railroad to southern Nevada. Las Vegas was incorporated on June 1, It was on this day that voting took place in an independent city.
And what were the results? There were voters for the inclusion of the city, against At that time, Las Vegas had inhabitants and the entire Clark County district was 3, Since then, the city begins to grow and mainly prosper.
Senator William Andrews Clark. This railroad helped to put Las Vegas on the map, and with it came the opening of saloons, stores, and lodges. Many have linked the railroad to the inception of Las Vegas as a gambling town.
The city was mostly made up of railroad workers and ranchers, so the demand for drinking, gambling, and prostitutes was high.
Underground casinos and illegal speakeasies were everywhere. Their tools have been discovered at several sites in the Las Vegas Valley.
The Ancestral Pueblo Anasazi and Paiute peoples came later and migrated between seasonal camps in the mountains and the valley.
The first Europeans known to have entered the area were members of a Spanish exploration party led by Santa Fe trader Antonio Armijo and a scout, Rafael Rivera, who were seeking a new route from Santa Fe to Los Angeles.
Arriving in the area in and noting its wetlands and meadows, Armijo described it on his map as Las Vegas. In a group of Mormon missionaries settled in the area.
Led by church elder William Bringhurst, the Mormons built a log fort surrounded by garden plots and fields of grain. But Las Vegas was doing more than growing casinos.
In , McCarran Field was established for commercial air traffic. In the University of Nevada, Las Vegas was first established, initially as a branch of the University of Nevada, Reno and becoming independent in In the Clark County Commission built the Las Vegas Convention Center , which would become a vital part of the area's economy.
A new utility company, Southwest Gas expanded into Las Vegas in These atmospheric tests would continue until enactment of the Partial Test Ban Treaty in when the tests moved underground.
The last test explosion was in In , Howard Hughes , the eccentric hero of the American aviation industry, and noted American entrepreneurial financier with vast connections to long established networks in the country, moved to Las Vegas.
Initially staying in the Desert Inn , he refused to vacate his room and instead decided to purchase the entire hotel.
He was instrumental in changing the image of Las Vegas from its Wild West roots into a more refined cosmopolitan city.
The local newspaper Las Vegas Sun and its editor Hank Greenspun led a crusade in those days to expose all the criminal ties, activities, and government corruption in Las Vegas.
His investigative reporting and editorials led to the exposure of Clark County Sheriff Glen Jones ' ownership of a brothel and the resignation of Lieutenant Governor Clifford A.
Jones as the state's national committeeman for the Democratic Party. Before his death in , Hank Greenspun founded The Greenspun Corporation to manage his family's assets, and it remains a major influence in Las Vegas, with media holdings in print, television and the Internet; substantial real estate holdings; and ownership stakes in a number of casinos.
One problem for the City of Las Vegas was that the Strip did not reside in Las Vegas. Because of this, the city lost tax revenue. There was a push to annex the Strip by the City of Las Vegas, but The Syndicate used the Clark County Commissioners to pull a legal maneuver by organizing the Las Vegas Strip properties into an unincorporated township called Paradise.
Under Nevada Law, an incorporated town, Las Vegas, cannot annex an unincorporated township. To this day, virtually all of the Strip remains outside the City of Las Vegas.
Much like in other American settled counties and towns throughout the United States, entertainment venues were segregated between black- and white-owned businesses.
With almost all of the businesses owned and operated by whites, Black Americans were barred from entering the venues which remained focused, regardless of their legitimacy or criminality, on entertaining a white-only clientele.
As a result of property deeds, businesses owned by or mainly serving non-whites were confined to clubs on the "west side" of the tracks.
This also was enforced in many of the work positions. Thus, African Americans except those who provided the labor for low-paying menial positions or entertainment and Hispanics were limited in employment occupations at the white-owned clubs.
However, because of employment deals with black worker groups, many clubs favored black workers, and the Hispanic population actually decreased ninety percent from 2, to just by the mids.
Organized crime-owned businesses saw an opportunity in not dividing their clientele by race and, despite property deeds and city and county codes barring such activities, made several attempts at desegregating their businesses in the hopes of putting out of operation the non-white owned clubs and expanding their own market share.
An attempt was made at forming an all-integrated night-club modeled on the Harlem Clubs of New York City during the s and s, like those owned by German-Jewish gangster Dutch Schultz.
On May 24, , Jewish crime boss Will Max Schwartz, along with other investors, opened the Moulin Rouge. It was a very upscale and racially integrated casino that actually competed against the resorts on the Strip, especially the non-white owned strips on the west side.
By the end of the year, the casino closed as Schwartz and his partners had a falling out, but the seeds for racial integration were sown.
Many sources have credited Frank Sinatra and the Rat Pack as a significant driving force behind desegregation in the casinos.
However, it took political action for racial desegregation to occur. In , the NAACP threatened a protest of the city's casinos for their policies.
A meeting between the NAACP, the mayor and local businessmen resulted in citywide casino desegregation, starting with the employees.
Many whites were attritioned from positions and their jobs given to the black unions. Along with the rest of the country, Las Vegas experienced the struggle for civil rights.